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192.168.l.l is, in most of the cases, the ip address to change the setting of your wireless routers. Please follow the instructions below to configure.

What is A Router

What is routing and It is an action that transfers information from the source to the target via connected networks In general, in the action, the information should pass at least one or more intermediate nodes. Routing and switching are often compared by people, mainly because in the eyes of average users, they have almost the same function. In fact, the main difference between routing and switching is the action layer, the switching comes up in the second layer of OSI reference model which is also called data link layer, and the routing comes up in the third layer which is called network layer. This difference determines the routing and switching process in the mobile information needs of different control information, so the two ways to achieve their function is different.

As early as 40 years ago, there have been discussions on routing technology, but until the 80′s routing technology gradually into commercial applications. The reason why the advent of the beginning of the routing technology is not widely used mainly because the network structure before 80 years are very simple, routing technology was useless in that time. Until the past decade, large-scale Internet has gradually become popular, which provide a good foundation and platform for the routing technology.

Router is the main node device in Internet. Router forwards data through the routing decision. Forwarding strategy is called routing, which is the origin of the name of the router (router, forwarder). As a hub between different networks, the router system constitutes a main context of Internet which is based on TCP/IP, and it also can be said, routers constitute the framework of Internet. Its processing speed is one of the main bottlenecks of network traffic, its reliability directly affects the quality of network interconnection. Therefore, in the campus networks, regional networks, and the whole research field of Internet, router technology has always been at the core, its development process and direction, has became a microcosm of Internet research.

The role of routers The role of routers

One role of the router is to connect different network, and another role is to select the information transmission lines. The choice on a smooth and fast line, can greatly increase the communication speed and reduce network traffic load and save, also can improve the flow rate of network systems, then enable the network systems to play greater benefit.

From the point of view on filtering network traffic, the role of routers, switches and bridges are very similar. But the routers use specialized software protocol to divide the entire network, that is different with the switches which divide the network on physical layer. For example, a router that supports IP protocols can divide the network into many subnets, only point to specific IP addresses of network traffic can pass the router. For each received packet, the router will re-calculate the checksum value, and write the new physical address. Therefore, the transmission speed of the routers is slower than the switches which are only checking the physical address of data packets.

But, for those complicated networks, the use of the routers can increase the overall efficiency of the network. Another advantage of the router is to filter the broadcast automatically. Generally speaking, the entire process of adding a router in the network is more complicated than adding a switch.

In general, the connection between different networks and multiple subnets should use the routers. The main job of routers is to find a best path for every data frame which pass the routers, and transfer the data to destination site effectively. Thus, routing algorithm is keys to the routers. To accomplish this, many data is stored in the routers which is also called routing table. Routing table holds a sign of subnet information, the routers numbers and the name of the next router and so on. Routing table can be fixed by the system administrator, can be modified by the system, can be adjusted automatically by the router, and also can be controlled by the host.

Internet Impact to


The Internet is global. This means that the networks which we are currently using, regardless of who invented it, belongs to all mankind. This “global” is not an inane political slogan, but has its technical assurance. The structure is based on the Internet “packet switching” way to connect the distributed network. Therefore, on the technical level, there is absolutely no central control in the Internet. In other words, a country or a certain interest group can’t control the Internet by technological means. In turn, the Internet can’t be limited within a country – unless the network is not the Internet.

Internet Impact to

However, at the same time, such a global network, there must be some way to identify each of them linked into the host. On the Internet, there’s no phenomenon that two people have the same name. Thus, we must have a fixed organization to determine the name for each host, which determines the “address” of the host on the Internet. However, this is merely “naming rights”, this is not the control power. The organization is only responsible for naming host, can’t do more things.

Similarly, the global network needs a protocol that is complied with all hosts, otherwise it’s impossible to establish the Internet that is common to all computers and all operating systems. Next generation of TCP/IP will classify the level of the information on the Internet, in order to accelerate the transmission speed, this is an example of the organization’s service. Again, this doesn’t mean the control of power.

There is no doubt that all these technical features of the Internet can explain the management of Internet is totally relevant to “service” not “control”. to

In fact, the current Internet is not the “information superhighway” which is often mentioned by people. This is not only because the current transmission speed is not enough, more importantly, the Internet has not yet finalized, it has been developing and changing. Therefore, any technical definition of the Internet can only be present.

Meanwhile, with to more and more use of the Internet by people, there will be more understanding on the value of the Internet. to is the default address of many routers, including linksys, cisco etc. When you need to config this kind of routers, you need to open in your browser, and type in username and password combinations. as the default IP address of the router could also be changed. If you cannot connect to, try other IPs including, etc.

Analysis on Router network layering technology

This article describes how to resolve the problems and troubles on router network layering. Network diagnosis is an important technical work to maintain networks.

Network diagnostics can use many tools: router trouble shooting commands, network management tools and LAN/WAN analyzers. Checking the routing table is a good way to find network failures. The commands of ICMP ping, trace, show and debug and Cisco is useful networking tools for obtaining useful troubleshooting information. How to monitor the details and failures under normal networking conditions? Using the command of show interface could easily get the information on each interface that you want to check. Show buffer command could display buffer size and usage regularly. Show proc command and show proc mem command could track the usage of processor and memory. These commands could collect data on a regular basis, and could be used as diagnostic reference.

Steps of network troubleshooting

The first step, you should determine the specific failure phenomena, and analyze the cause. For example, the host has no response on clients request, there are some possible causes such as hosting configuration issue, interface card failure, or router configuration command is missing, and so on.

The second step, you should gather information that could help isolating faults, and collect useful information from network management systems, protocol analysis trace, router output reports or other software introduction.

The third step, you should consider possible failure reasons according to the gathered information, and exclude some certain cause of the failure. For example, you could exclude the hardware failure according to the info and put your focus on the software causes.

The fourth step, you should set up a diagnostic program according to the last possible reasons.

The fifth step, you should perform the diagnostics program, and do every test and observation seriously, and confirm its results when you change a parameter. At last, you should check whether you resolve the failure, if you don’t, go on, until it’s done.

The basic method of troubleshooting network layering: along the path from the source to the target, check the routing table, as well as check the IP address of the interface. If the routing doesn’t appear in the routing table, you should check whether you have entered the appropriate static route, default route, or dynamic route. Then you should manually configure some lost routing or exclude some faults during the process of dynamic routing choice, including the RIP and IGRP routing protocol failure.

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